Image below shows four equipotentials of a rapidly spinning 50 Jupiter mass protostar. The north pole is up. The south pole is down. The equator reaches orbital velocity.


Planets form 4 at a time from material spun off the equator. A pair of large planets and a pair of small planets.
At first all 4 of the planets are in the same orbit but eventually they end up in orbits that look like this:
Spiral galaxy arms diagram
Over time the orbits are circularized.

All masses are in units of 10^22 kg

Protosun 9,500,000

Jupiter 189,800
Satyrn 56,830
Neptune 10,240
Ouranos 8,681


Earth 597
Venus 487
Mars 64
Mercury 33

Jupiter has four large moons too :

Ganymede 15
Callisto 10
Io 9
Europa 5

Ouranos also has four large moons

Titania 0.35
Oberon 0.3
Ariel 0.135
Umbriel 0.117

Only two issues:
1) One large body (Ceres) in the inner system is unaccounted for

(Mass of asteroid belt =0.33)

2) Instead of having four moons Earth only has one moon

But these two issues partially cancel each other out if Ceres was originally a moon of Earth.


Theia 14 (orbit decayed until nothing was left)
Moon 7
Ceres 0.1
???? 0.23 (probably collided with a 100 km diameter retrograde ice Moon)


Titan 13 perhaps two largest moons merged (this could explain the ring system)
???? 0.8 and the two smallest either struck Satyrn
???? 0.4 or were ejected

Satyrn-sized proto-protosun 40,900+

Whatever struck Ouranos (this Collision most likely occurred when Ouranos was very close to the protosun)
Triton 2
Eris 1.67
Pluto 1.3 (Charon 0.16)

(Earth mass + Venus mass)/(Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 11
(Jupiter mass + Saturn mass)/(Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 13

Jupiter mass / Ouranos mass = 21.8
Earth mass / Mercury mass = 18.1
Moon mass / Asteroid belt mass = 22

Post core collapse: small moons

Ouranos mass / (Titania mass + Oberon mass + Ariel mass + Umbriel mass) = 9580
Protostar mass / (Earth mass + Venus mass + Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 8035

Post core collapse: large moons

Jupiter mass / (Ganymede mass + Io mass + Callisto mass + Europa mass) = 4830
Saturn mass / (titan mass) = 4225

Core collapse: very large moons

Earth mass / (Asteroid belt mass + Moon mass) = 38.9 * 2 (But half the moons are missing)
Protostar mass / (Jupiter mass + Saturn mass + Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 35.7

There are clearly two different processes going on here. Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune were created by the collapse of the core of the very rapidly spinning protostar. Likewise the moons of Earth were created by the collapse of the core of the Earth.

However the moons of Jupiter and the inner planets Earth Mars Venus Mercury were created by a different process. Gas and dust falling on to the equator of the parent world would have made its way to the poles where it would have been boiled off (T-Tauri wind). In the process it would have transferred nearly all of it angular momentum to that world and the dust would have rained out and formed a layer of lava. Eventually this lava made its way to the equator, which by then was spinning at orbital velocity, and formed four planets or moons.

Jupiter mass / (Saturn mass + Uranus mass + Neptune mass) = 2.5
Earth mass / (Venus mass + Mercury mass + Mars mass) = 1