Mathematics is very important to the field, as many physical relations are described by mathematical equations. Advanced mathematics (such as vector calculus and differential equations) are fundamental to the field.
- Dynamics is the study of forces, torques, and their effects on the motion of bodies. Dynamics is further divided into fields such as kinetics, ballistics, and fluid dynamics.
- Thermodynamics is the study of temperature, heat transfer, and their relationships with work and energy.
- Optics is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interactions with matter.
- Particle physics studies the behavior of subatomic particles, such as atoms, hadrons, electrons, and quarks.