Physics: Problems and Solutions


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This paper was announced to many universities around the world (October 2013)                                                                                                                                                

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης  Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece



Historically Newton in his opticks (1704) of his particles of light predicted not only the periodic properties of the particles of light but also  the bending of them near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN  ). Nevertheless in 1803 Young for the explanation of his double slit experiment abandoned Newton’s particles of light having mass in favor of the Huygens waves moving through a hypothetical ether.

Meanwhile in 1845 Faraday discovered that Newton’s particles of light have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones. However Maxwell in 1865 for the development of his electromagnetic theory used only the  electromagnetic properties of light which led to his wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether.

Especially Maxwell influenced by the Faraday false concept  of  fields (1832) developed his electromagnetic theory by suggesting that light consists of waves moving as self-propagating fields  through the hypothetical ether. So he  abandoned not only Newton’s particles of light but also the electromagnetic forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere ( 1820)  In such a wrong way he also introduced the  wrong postulation of  a hypothetical electric field in the induction law (1832), which violates the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. Note that on the basis of the principle of relativity in 1847 Neumann showed  that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law. Maxwell recognized that E/B = c deduced from Weber’s experiments (1856).  So for justifying it he  introduced also his second wrong postulation of “displacement current”. Under this condition despite his  excellent math the electromagnetic theory did much retard the progress of physics for understanding the nature of light. It is fortunate that the experiment of French  and Tessman (1963) showing that Maxwell’s displacement current involves  misconceptions led me to discover the Photon-matter interaction[1]which unifies the forces of the well-established laws. (See my UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ).

Meanwhile the Michelson - Morley experiment (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of  Newton’s particles of light having mass. However  Einstein in 1905  for the explanation of the photoelectric effect influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through the fallacious ether  used only the photon energy hν for the absorption of  photons by electrons, while the Kaufmann experiment (1902) showed that the absorption of energy by electrons increases the mass of electrons. Of course such a wrong explanation led to his invalid relativity which violates not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the principle of relativity. Under this crisis of physics in 1993 I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” my paper  IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES which invalidates both Maxwell’s fields and Einstein’s relativity because the dipolar nature of photons having mass led to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION according to which the energy hν and the photon mass m = hν/c2 are absorbed by electrons in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by Greek philosophers. This situation led to the crisis of modern cosmology because cosmologists believe incorrectly that the origin of our early universe is due to an energy transformed  into the mass  of particles via the fallacious Higgs bosons. (See  in User Kaliambos the paper "IMPACT...DIPOLIC PARTICLES" along with my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM). The last paper invalidate both Einstein’s wrong “mass-energy equivalence” and the WRONG STANDARD MODEL .



An important idea of Greek philosophers was that “Nothing comes from nothing” so that what exist now has always existed: no new matter can come into existence where there was none before. Anaximander (610-546 B.C.) was the first to give a scientific view of the World, free from myth. In his philosophy he introduced the apeiron of an infinite Cosmos endless in time and space. The important argument in Anaximander’s philosophy is the idea of an eternal and unchangeable cosmological essence, from which all things are derived and finally return. In his early Cosmology,  Anaximander introduced the (Apeiron), an endless or unlimited primordial mass, which is the source of all things and responsible for genesis and decay of them under a first cause (Arche) . { Εκ γαρ τούτου πάντα γίνεσθαι και εις τούτο πάντα φθείρεσθαι , διό και γεννάσθαι απείρους κόσμους… }. [ From this all things grow to be and in this all things return to decay , and for this reason it bears infinite worlds…]. As a result of the infinity, Anaximander believed in a plurality of worlds like the Multiverse including the historical universe described by the Big Bang model.

 He also mentions an arche (a beginning), which was not similar to any other arche or element of the Cosmos, that is, an arche which encloses all and rules all. According to Aristotle: “So the ‘unlimited’ cannot be derived from any other principle, but is itself regarded as the principle of the other things, ‘embracing and governing all’… This unlimited, then would be the divinity itself, being ‘immortal and indestructible’ as Anaximander and most of the physicists declare it to be.” In other words Anaximander recognized that in nature there is a law of conservation of mass.( See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICSNEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS  ).

According to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION  the mass of photons and particles like the ideas of Anaximander is conserved in all interactions, while Einstein believed incorrectly that the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of the photon mass but to its velocity with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such an idea violates dramatically the conservation law of mass not only in chemical reactions but also in the photon-matter interactions confirmed by the experiment of Kaufman (1902) who interpreted it by using Thomson’s electromagnetic mass in accordance with the conservation law of mass.(See my THOMSON AND MICHELSON REJECT EINSTEIN).

In the same way Heraclitus (535-475), the philosopher of “ everything flows”, was the first to question the witness of the senses which show different world to each individual. The change obeys a universal law the (' logos), an intelligent governing principle materially embodied as eternal living fire, like the conservation law of energy.{ Αλλ'’ 'ην' 'αεί' 'και'''''''έστιν' 'και' 'έσται' 'πυρ' 'αείζωον}. [ But it has been forever, and is, and will be, a fire living eternally].

Einstein incorrectly modified these two separated laws by introducing the wrong rest mass energy and the false transformation of mass into energy. In fact, in the absorption of photons by particles the increase of the energy of the particle is due not to the increase of the electron mass but to the potential energy of the electromagnetic interaction between a photon and the charge (-e) of the electron. In this direction our discovery of the “matter- photon transformation

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν /m = c2

invalidated the special relativity for justifying the two separated conservation laws of mass and energy. Moreover, the energy of the simple system electron-positron is due not to the mass but to their charge –charge interaction. Here the two particles give οff their energy ΔΕ to the two photons (ΔΕ = hν) confirming the Logos of Heraclitus. Also the two particles give off their mass ΔΜ to the mass of photons (ΔΜ = m) confirming the Arche of Anaximander.



A characteristic statement of the conservation law of mass is found also in Empedocles (494-434 B.C.) “For it is impossible for anything to come to be from what is not, and it cannot be brought about, or heard of that what is should be utterly destroyed .” In antiquity, Empedocles for describing the mystery of universal regularities posited four eternal and unaltered elements producing the phenomena of changing things by their interactions like the atoms ( indivisible particles) of atomistic philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, who ignored the paradoxes of the Eleatic school about the infinite division of matter and the non existence of vacuum . As change is the consequence of the mixture and separation of elements it was also necessary for Empedocles to suppose the existence of two basic powers, the Love and the Strife, which pervade the universe like the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involving attractive and repulsive forces acting at a distance. Whereas Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields  abandoned the action at a distance confirmed accurately by the experiments of the Quantum entanglement (1935). (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).



In the great work On the nature of things, the Roman poet Lucretius, contemporary to Julius Caesar and Cicero, recorded an embellished the nature-philosophy of Greece’s Democritus (.470-390 B.C.) and Epicurus ( 341-270 B.C.) and he reiterated what may be considered as one of the earliest hints of a profound general principle of science: “Things cannot be born from nothing, cannot when begotten be brought back to nothing.” Everything now existing must have continual existence in past, present, and future, although form, appearance, and the like may indeed change. ( See this important philosophical concept taken from Greek philosophers that our observable universe is a part of an eternal cosmos in my paper OUR EARLY UNIVERSE    ). Yet there is a very considerable distance from the panegyric of Lucretius to the modern law of conservation of mass-that almost axiomatic basis of much in our physical sciences-which teaches that despite changes of position, shape, phase, chemical composition, and so forth, the total mass in a given enclosed region remains constant.  Democritus in his atomistic philosophy coined the term atom from the  Greek word “άτομος” which means “ uncuttable" or “the smallest indivisible particle of matter. Thus  the hydrogen atom of the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations is not the atom of Democritus, because it consists of  smaller particles like protons neutrons and electrons. On this basis according to Democritus atoms were small, hard particles that were all made of the same material (mass) but were different shapes and sizes. In other words the atoms of Democritus are similar to particles of  modern physics including also photons having mass m = hν/c, because in nature massless particles cannot exist.  Moreover Epicurus  like Democritus,  was an atomist, believing that the fundamental constituents of the world were indivisible little bits of matter  indivisible) flying through empty space (keno). Everything that occurs is the result of the atoms colliding, rebounding, and becoming entangled with one another, with no purpose or plan behind their motions. Thus under the two conservation laws of  energy and mass based on the atomistic philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus I discovered the interaction of photons with particles or the interaction of the smallest indivisible particles of the Democritus atomistic philosophy. Moreover since the energy cannot turn into mass I discovered the early quark triads of OUR EARLY UNIVERSE . However under the influence of Einstein’s incorrect relativity, cosmologists like Hawking, Kaku, Krauss, Carrol, Stenger, Guth, Vilenking, Matheus, and Wilczek based on the invalid “rest mass energy” believe that matter in very early universe could give an invalid  “rest positive energy” which should be equal to the negative energy of gravity. So they  did much to retard the progress of cosmology, because they speculated that the universe created out from nothing.

In fact, according to the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by the Greek philosophers in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE which is a part of an eternal cosmos both mass and energy existed for ever as separated entities.

Under the same laws of conservation I observed also a particle-particle transformation. For example in the early universe when an energetic antineutrino of mass or energy of 1.8 MeV interacts electromagnetically with a proton a neutron and a positron ( e+) are generated. Note that the energy and the mass can be expressed in MeV because an energy E of 1 eV = 1.6/1019 J.

While the mass M of  1 eV = (1.6/1019)/c2 = 1.7778/1036 Kg.

Studying many experiments I showed that the simple antineutrino (ν) has a negative magnetic moment, because it is a spinning particle having a negative charge along the periphery and an equal positive charge in the center, like the spinning neutron, while the simple neutrino has a positive magnetic moment. Both particles have peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light like the spinning up and down quarks . In our paper “Quarks, neutrinos, nucleons, and nuclei ” we showed that a proton consists of 93 uncharged triads (dud) with extra (4u +5d) quarks. In fact, the simple antineutrino interacts with the up quark ( u) of an uncharged triad as ν+ u = d + e+. That is, the transformation of the up quark into a down quark under electromagnetic interactions of short range generates a positron. During this transformation the proton of 93 uncharged quarks and 9 extra quarks is transformed into an unstable neutron with 92 uncharged triads and (4u + 8d) extra quarks. Under the two conservation laws we observe the conserved energy or mass in MeV as

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.511.

Note that Glasgow in 1968 influenced by the invalid theory of Einstein’s relativity developed the electroweak theory by assuming incorrectly that in such reactions, called weak interactions, very heavy bosons participate as force carriers. For example a similar interaction is observed also when a photon (γ) of energy or mass of 2.2246 MeV interacts with a deuteron (D) to separate it into a proton and a neutron. ( γ + D = p + n).


It is of interest to note that Lavoisier was the first to prove the conservation law of mass by experiments. As Lavoisier wrote in 1789: “We must lay it down as an incontestable axiom, that in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; an equal quantity of matter exists both before and after the experiment.” However despite Lavoisier’s emphatic statement of the conservation law, there was still room for doubt. In 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of the mass of particles of light or light waves.

Unfortunately Einstein in 1905 influenced by Maxwell’s wrong self-propagating fields with no mass believed that his photons are massless particles. Thus Einstein’s incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect led to his invalid relativity which did much to retard the progress of physics because Einstein himself developed his invalid special relativity with the wrong concepts of rest mass, relativistic mass , rest mass energy, mass –energy equivalence, and mass-energy conservation, which violated the two conservation laws of energy and mass and led to the crisis of atomic and nuclear physics.



Einstein as a deductive thinker did not like the well-established laws of Newton and of electromagnetism. (See EINSTEIN BY LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS  ). So in the chapter “Physics and reality” of his book “ The evolution of physics” (1938) Einstein starts with the wrong idea that science is not the collection of laws but of theories. However according to epistemologists science is divided into two parts. In the first part the knowledge is based on the well-established laws of nature discovered by great physicists, while in the second part called “Science at the frontiers” the new research should be based on new ideas which must lead to the well-established laws like the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations. This is the inductive method used by the great physicists like Galileo, Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. (See my NEWTON AND GALILEO REGECT EINSTEIN ).

The philosopher Aristotle (384-322  B.C.) was the first who introduced the inductive method for revealing the laws of the mysterious phenomena of nature. Historically, he has been the subject of more debate in scientific circles than any philosopher or “scientist” who ever lived. He has been variously considered as being an “armchair scientist” like Einstein of modern times. Aristotle could easily have tested many of his erudite pronouncements but considered it unnecessary to challenge the power of the logical mind; as been the first to use the inductive method of scientific investigation, which led later to the discoveries of the well-established laws of physics. However it is indeed unfortunate that Einstein abandoned Aristotle’s  inductive reasoning in favor of the deductive one based on various hypotheses or postulations. Such wrong ideas led to the modern fallacious theories of theWRONG STANDARD MODEL which could not reveal the nuclear structure.  


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