ΑΙΝΣΤΑΙΝ - ΛEΥTEΡΗΣ KAΛIAMΠOΣ
This article was announced to many universities around the world ( May 2013).
By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Αϊνστάιν - Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece
I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. ( Einstein in 1954 expressing his frustration to M. Besso )
I DISCOVERED THE LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TIME DILATION DURING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTIONS OF PHOTONS UNDER FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE OF NEWTON'S WELL-ESTABLISHED THIRD LAW CONFIRMED BY THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT.
N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" (2002) Why nuclear binding invalidates Einstein
THE ABANDONMENT OF NEWTON'S PARTICLES OF LIGHT (1803) LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FALSE MAXWELL’S FIELDS (1865) MOVING THROUGH A FALSE ETHER, WHICH CONTRADICTS THE GALILEAN PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH THE MICHELSON EXPERIMENT (1887) REJECTED THE ETHER, EINSTEIN FOR DEVELOPING HIS THEORIES OF PHOTON AND RELATIVITY WAS BASED NOT ON LAWS BUT ON SUCH WRONG FIELDS (1905) WHICH LED TO THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS SOLVED BY OUR APPLICATIONS OF THE LAWS . NOTE THAT EINSTEIN IN HIS ACCURATE EXPLANATION OF THE BROWNIAN MOTION USED THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER BASED ON THE NEWTONIAM MECHAMICS, WHICH IS THE FOUNDATION OF PHYSICS UNDER THE FRENCH-TESSMAN EXPERIMENT (1963) WHICH SHOWED THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL'S FIELDS. HOWEVER UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WRONG FIELDS AND PHILOSOPHICAL SPECULATIONS EINSTEIN DID NOT LIKE THE “OLD SCIENCE”. UNDER THIS CONDITION HE DEVELOPED CONTRADICTING RELATIVITY THEORIES. FOR EXAMPLE HIS PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE F/α = m (constant) INVALIDATES DRAMATICALLY HIS SPECIAL RELATIVITY, ACCORDING TO WHICH THE ACCELERATION α CHANGES THE INERTIAL MASS m. THEREFORE TO AVOID CONFUSIONS AND FOR THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE I PRESENT A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF EINSTEIN ABOUT HIS DEVELOPED CONCEPTS.
Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES (1993) which invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields.
One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM (2002) which reveals the nuclear structure and invalidates Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. The above published articles can be found in LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS . (See also my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ).
EINSTEIN IN HIS ACCURATE EXPLANATION (1905) OF THE BROWNIAN MOTION USED THE CORRECT KINETIC THEORY OF THE NEWTONIAN MECHANICS CONTRADICTING THE WRONG FIELDS OF FARADAY AND MAXWELL. NOTE THAT THE FRENCH - TESSMAN EXPERIMENT (1963) SHOWED THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL'S FIELDS. BUT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIS THEORIES OF PHOTON AND "RELATIVITY" EINSTEIN WAS INFLUENCED BY THE FIELDS, AS WELL AS THE FALLACIOUS ETHER THEORY OF LORENTZ. ALSO EINSTEIN INFLUENCED BY THE AXIOMS OF HIS "HOLY LITTLE GEOMETRY BOOK" AND THE SPECULATIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS, HUME, KANT, AND MACH, USED INCORRECTLY THE DEDUCTIVE REASONING, WHICH LED TO THE CRISIS OF MODERN PHYSICS, BECAUSE EINSTEIN NOT ONLY VIOLATED THE TWO CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND ENERGY BUT ALSO IN HIS GENERAL RELATIVITY HE REPLACED INCORRECTLY THE FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS BY HIS VARIOUS WRONG HYPOTHESES. WHEREAS THE SCIENTIFIC INDUCTIVE METHOD ( DETAILED ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS LEADING TO GENERAL CONCLUSIONS) USED BY NEWTON, COULOMB, AND AMPERE, ESTABLISHED THE NATURAL LAWS. NEVERTHELESS, LIKE ARISTOTLE, EINSTEIN HAS BEEN VARIOUSLY CONSIDERED AS BEING AN "ARMCHAIR SCIENTIST" BECAUSE IN 1916 HE WAS APPOINTED PRESIDENT OF THE GERMAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY ( LIKE AN ARMCHAIR PROFESSOR OF ACADEMIC ESTABLISHMENT ). ON THE OTHER HAND PHYSICISTS BELIEVE THAT HE PREDICTED THE INCREASE OF MASS, THE BENDING OF LIGHT, THE BLACK HOLES, THE NUCLEAR BINDING etc. IN FACT, THE FIRST EXPERIMENT OF THE INCREASE OF MASS WAS PERFORMED BY KAUFMANN IN 1901, DUE TO THE ABSORPTION OF PHOTON MASS OR THE MASS OF NON MECHANICAL ENERGIES UNDER A LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TIME DILATION (SEE MY UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ).
ON THE OTHER HAND THE BENDING OF LIGHT PREDICTED BY NEWTON WAS CONFIRMED BY SOLDNER IN 1801. ALSO THE BLACK HOLES ARE DUE TO THE GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT OF PHOTONS AFTER THE APPLICATION OF NEWTON'S SECOND LAW ON OUR DIPOLIC PHOTONS, WHILE THE NUCLEAR BINDING IS DUE TO OUR DISCOVERY OF THE EXTRA CHARGED QUARKS IN NUCLEONS WHICH INTERACT WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES OF SHORT RANGE. NOTE THAT UNDER THE STRONG INFLUENCE OF EINSTEIN’S INVALID RELATIVITY PHYSICISTS, AFTER EINSTEIN, DEVELOPED WRONG THEORIES. MOREOVER " Einstein: His Life and Universe - by Walter Isaacson" LEADS TO CONFUSIONS, SINCE EINSTEIN BELIEVED THAT HE DISMISSED THE LAWS OF THE “OLD PHYSICS” WHICH BY EXPERIMENTS ESTABLISHED LOCAL ABSOLUTE SPACE AND TIME IN ROTATING SYSTEMS AND IN NEWTON'S PARTICLES OF LIGHT, WHICH MOVE WITH RESPECT TO THE SOURCE OF RADIATION. (SEE MY CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY).
Physicists today believe that Einstein’s relativity is a universal law, while the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere, unified by me, should not be compatible with the assumed “correct” Maxwell’s fields. For example at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002) when I clarified that Einstein was based on wrong fields Of Maxwell, some elderly professors abandoned the auditorium and there was only one left on the front raw, who was utterly obsessed with the idea that relativity is the foundation of physics.
The opposition was greater when I emphasized that the discovery of the electron spin (1925) showed that the peripheral velocity of spinning electrons is greater than the speed of light which interprets the two-electron pairing in atomic orbitals.
In fact, the action at a distance of the well-established laws was confirmed by the Michelson-Morley experiment (1887), while Lorentz based on the fallacious ether suggested a length contraction and a time dilation ( Lorentz transformation ) used by Einstein. Also the action at a distance of laws confirmed by the quantum entanglement experiments explains not only the quantum mechanics but also the atomic and nuclear phenomena (see my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS). Whereas Maxwell’s fields are invalid, since the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showed that Maxwell’s postulation of the displacement current (1865) involves misconceptions. Under this crisis of fields I developed my model of dipolic photons (1993) because Maxwell violated the principle of relativity in the induction law by introducing his false electric field. On the other hand the contrary beliefs of Mach and Minkowski influenced deeply Einstein’s concepts for the development of his invalid general relativity, in which the principle of equivalence invalidates his special relativity, because the ratio of force to the acceleration gives always a constant inertial mass, no matter what is the value of acceleration. Such wrong ideas did much to retard the progress not only of atomic and nuclear physics but also of cosmology. For example under the influence of wrong mass-energy equivalence physicists, such as Hawking, Kaku, Krauss, Carrol, Stenger, Guth, Vilenkin, Mathews, and Wilczek, believe that the entire universe could arise from nothing. In fact, since energy cannot turn into mass, the quark triads in OUR UNIVERSE during the first 0.1 second (big bang) gave off their masses to neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos and positrons.Olympia (1993) with the editor of “Apeiron”
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF EINSTEIN ABOUT HIS DEVELOPED IDEAS
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm of Germany (a small town near Munich). At the early childhood (until he was three years old) he was slow in learning how to talk. “My parents were so worried” he later recalled “that they consulted a doctor”. At early years Einstein would write about one event that had a marked effect on his childhood. It was an encounter with a compass at age five, where he marveled at the invisible forces that turned the needle, despite the apparent “empty space”. However, later, Einstein for explaining the real magnetic force (because of his mathematical and philosophical achievements) did not like the natural force of the law of Ampere but the new false fields of Faraday and Maxwell involving excellent math.
Note that in 1889 the Einstein family invited a poor medical student named Max Talmud, who introduced Einstein of ten years old to numerous scientific books including Euclid’s Elements, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kant, 1781), and the skepticism of Hume. Einstein called the Euclidean geometry the "holy little geometry book" from which he understood the method of the deductive reasoning, which influenced him for using later not the inductive method (which led Newton to the discovery of laws after a careful analysis of experiments and observations) but to introduce various hypotheses for the development of his invalid relativity. It is well-known that the deductive reasoning (from axioms to conclusions) led to enormous success in mathematics but Greek philosophers using it failed to give an explanation of the planetary system.
At 12 after reading many popular scientific books Einstein did not show much proficiency at learning his lessons in school. In other words, he disliked any kind of regimentation from his teachers. His family was Jewish but "entirely irreligious", as Einstein later described it; young Einstein did not receive much religious instruction at home and his parents sent him to a Catholic elementary school in Munich.
He became on his own interested in the Jewish religion, but according to his autobiographical notes (1949) at age 12 “..through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much in stories of the Bible could not be true. The consequence was a positively fanatic [orgy of ] freethinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the state through lies; it was a crushing impression. Suspicion against every kind of authority grew out of this experience, a skeptical attitude towards the convictions which were alive in any specific social environment-an attitude which has never again left me, even though later on, because of a better insight into the causal connections it lost some of its original poignancy".
Under such a rich knowledge (out of the school) for a very young person like Einstein, from elementary school through college his teachers and professors thought him lazy, sloppy, and insubordinate. What appeared to be laziness in class was really boredom. Einstein preferred to ponder questions such as what makes the needle of a compass point in one direction? Or what happens when we travel at the speed of light?
At 15 living in a boarding house in Munich, he was unhappy there and soon left to join his parents in Italy. His exit apparently did not sadden the Munich school - in fact one of his teachers had suggested that his mere presence in the class "destroyed the respect of the students". Apparently Einstein's obvious honestly expressed distaste for the mechanical drill of lessons combined with the fact that he was nevertheless exceedingly proficient in mathematics.
At the age of 16 (1895) under the wave nature of light, which replaced incorrectly Newton’s particles of light, Einstein begun to relate the speed of light with respect to an observer, and concluded that the speed of light is always constant and as a wave moving through the ether it is independent of the source of radiation. Since Einstein did not like to read Newton's ideas of the "Old Physics" he did not study carefully Newton's wave ideas about Newton's particles of light. Historically, Newton suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomenon of colors. Therefore, I discovered that Einstein’s photons (1905) have not only energy hν but also mass. Then according to Newton’s particles of light photons not only move with respect to the source of radiation but also accelerate, when they move near the sun. This was the well-known prediction of Newton confirmed by Soldner in 1801.
Under such strange ideas of waves moving through an ether Einstein sent an essay with a letter to his uncle Koch on “The investigation of the State of Ether in Magnetic Fields”. We add here a small paragraph of his essay: “ when the electric current comes into being, it immediately sets the surrounded ether in some kind of instantaneous motion”. This is the well-known induction law of Faraday (1832), which is consistent with the real magnetic force of the Ampere Law (1820). But since Einstein was influenced by the new theories of Faraday's "strange properties of vacuum around magnets" and Maxwell's "false ether" believed that this phenomenon is related with the fallacious ether. Here one sees also that Einstein influenced by the deductive reasoning of his "holy little geometry book" did not follow the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere but introduced the hypothesis of an instantaneous motion of an invisible ether. Unfortunately such ideas led him after 10 years (1905) to develop his relativity but by asserting that the ether could be replaced by the Faraday vacuum. In fact, Einstein re-introduced the ether in his general relativity.
Rather than finishing high school, Einstein decided to apply directly to the prestigious Polytechnic Institute in Zurich. Although he failed the entrance exam on the first try, he then spent a year studying at the high school of Aarau near Zurich and retook the entrance in 1896 and passed. Also at the Polytechnic Einstein again did not like school. As a youth Einstein taught himself calculus but believing that his professors only taught the laws of old science, Einstein would often skip class, preferring to stay home and read about the newest fallacious theories of Maxwell's electromagnetic fields without comparing them with the well-established laws of force. When he did attend class, Einstein would often make it obvious that he found the class dull, and neglected his mathematics to perform experiments. Much more later Einstein in his book “The evolution in physics” emphasized in his conclusions that for understanding the phenomena the role of science is not the collection of laws but to develop new theories.
Unfortunately Einstein could not distinguish the difference between the well-established laws and the frontiers of fundamental physics. According to the epistemologists science is divided into two parts. The first part is our complete knowledge based on applications of the well-established laws, while the second part belongs to the so-called frontiers of science for researching new phenomena under the applications of the well-established laws or to discover new natural laws under logical hypotheses based on a large number of detailed experiments. Therefore Einstein's " Imagination is more important than knowledge " (1929) could not be correct for any discovery in physics. Note that new ideas in physics should be based on the well-established laws of nature, after a careful analysis of experiments, because we showed that the abandonment of laws under the suggestion of various hypotheses and postulates did much to retard the progress of science.
Those years Einstein's close friend M. Besso introduced Einstein to the works of Mach's philosophical speculations. Therefore Einstein was influenced by Mach’s critique (1883) of the Newtonian absolute local space of a rotating system. Mach speculated that the rotation is related to the fallacious "Fixed stars" while Newton proved by experiments that rotation about the axis of rotation is a kind of local absolute space and time which does not violate the Galilean principle of relativity, discovered my Galileo in 1632 and deduced from Newton’s laws (1687). Unfortunately though Newton recognized that his particles of light move with respect to the source of radiation he did not use any local absolute space for constant motions in straight lines. Although he analyzed carefully the elastic and inelastic collisions, which are characterized by an instantaneous force at the point of collision, he did not clarify that this is the point of reference for such uniform motions. In the case of a train moving with a uniform velocity, it is widely known that a train always starts with an acceleration. However because of the friction at a point of the surface of the earth along the traveling the acceleration become zero. This is the point of reference of the uniform motion of any inertial frame on our earth. It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein influenced by the speculations of Mach believed that the inertial frames are related to the fallacious "Fixed stars" or by the "structure of ether" influenced by the matter.
Note that in our model of dipolic particles (1993) we showed that photons have not only energy hνbut also mass. So like Newton’s particles of light, they move with respect to the source of radiation. After a careful analysis we revealed that according to the conservation law of momentum all parts of an explosion (or of a two-body collision) performed on a moving train move with respect to the position of the explosion, (or the collision) no matter what is the velocity of the train, since we measure velocities + u and – u in a system similar to the Cartesian coordinates. Another useful example is the case of a radioactive material on a moving train, which emits particles like α, β, and γ (photons with mass) moving with respect to the material, no matter what is the velocity of the train. For example all observers on the moving train will measure the same frequency ν of photons, while an observer on the earth will measure not only a different frequency but also an acceleration of photons due to gravity.
Under the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum and following Newton’s local absolute space, I clarify that in general we are able to observe non equivalent reference frames. For example the particles α, β, and γ move with respect to the material on the moving train. The train moves with respect to the surface of the earth. The surface of the earth rotates about its axis, it is in orbit about the sun, and the entire solar system revolves about the center of our galaxy, which moves with respect to the big bang in accordance with the conservation law of momentum.
At those years, because of his philosophical ideas about the deductive reasoning against the laws of "old physics" Einstein also had to teach himself Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, which had not yet become part of the standard curriculum, but was a major influence on Einstein. In the absence of any clarification about the reference frames of motions Einstein himself described Maxwell’s work as the “most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton”. But under the excellent equations Einstein could not reveal that Maxwell’s both postulations are wrong.
Under such fallacious ideas of fields introduced by Faraday and Maxwell, Einstein believed that the motion of a magnet with respect to a conductor was the key for the development of his (special) relativity. Einstein wrote in his Autobiographical notes the following paragraph: “The phenomenon of magneto-electric induction compelled me to postulate the (special) principle of relativity”. In fact, Maxwell violated the Galilean principle of relativity in the induction law by introducing his fallacious electric field, though the experiments of the so-called motional electromotive force showed that the induction law is consistent with the real magnetic force of the Ampere law. But since Einstein believed that Maxwell’s theory is a fundamental law kept a photograph of Maxwell of his study wall alongside pictures of Faraday and Newton. Toward the end of his university days he was studying closely the current state of “ether physics” a subject that reflected the confusion in the classical physics of that time.
In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. Although it might seem an unusual occupation for a theoretical physics the position as patent examiner did have certain advantages for Einstein at this stage of his career. The complete absence of contact with professional physicists permitted Einstein to develop his rather unorthodox approach to the problems of physics based not on the laws of “old science” but on the new theories of fields and of fallacious ether. The work was no dull; he was continually having to analyze and criticize ideas like the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum, the new ideas of Planck’s quantum hypothesis under the experiments of the photoelectric effect, the Galilean principle of relativity and the Lorentz hypothetical length contraction and time dilation ( Lorentz transformations) in the Lorentz theory of ether.
In 1905, Einstein at 26, immediately published four papers. Especially in his relativity he used confusing postulations in a philosophic manner, unlike Newton, who at 24 had quietly made spectacular discoveries in mathematics and in physics (1666), but he published his PRINCIPIA after 21 years (1687), because he confronted necessity of scrutinizing the assumptions under his famous statement “I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES” when philosophers tried to criticize his laws under the fallacious Cartesian ether. It is of interest to note that PRINCIPIA established Newton at once as one of the greatest thinkers in history of science. Whereas all theories of 19th and 20th centuries based not on laws but on various philosophical concepts led to the crisis of physics except, the kinetic theory of matter, the Bohr model, and the Schrodinger equations developed by applying the natural laws under the rules of quantum mechanics. In the same way the problem of the increase of mass of particles in modern accelerators and the structure of atoms, molecules, and nuclei, was solved by me by applying the same natural laws under the quantum dynamics and the two conservation laws of mass and energy.
Einstein’s the first paper of 1905 involves a very useful theory for the farther development of the particle nature of light. Following Planck’s quantum theory he revealed that light consists of photons (June 9 ). The resolution of the photoelectric effect problem came in his paper entitled “On a heuristic point of view concerning the generation and transformation of light”.
The second paper ( July 18 ) was very important, because he gave an accurate explanation of the Brownian movement by applying the correct kinetic molecular theory of the Newtonian mechanics. Note that according to Newton's great work a new idea is correct when it leads to the application of the well-established laws.
Indeed Einstein in his"The evolution of physics " (1938) and in the chapter THE RATE OF EXCHANGE wrote that he was based on the fundamental work done by non-professional physicists and he concluded that the whole universe is governed by the two conservation laws of mass and energy under the laws of Newtonian mechanics. However under the influence of Maxwell's wrong fields he developed his "Relativity" according to which the two conservation laws were abandoned in favor of the wrong concept of "Mass-energy conservation" which did much to retard the progress of physics. In my paper OUR EARLY UNIVERSE I emphasize that energy cannot turn into mass, in accordance with the well-established laws. Here you see Eistein's inductive reasoning of the Newtonian mechanics for the explanation of the Brownian motion. But in the same year (1905) Einstein used analogous hypotheses (out of the inductive reasoning) for the development of his theories of photons and "Relativity".
THE RATE OF EXCHANGE
Less than a hundred years ago the new clue which led to the concept of heat as a form of energy was guessed by Mayer and confirmed experimentally by Joule. It is a strange coincidence that nearly all the fundamental work concerned with the nature of heat was done by non-professional physicists who regarded physics merely as their great hobby. There was the versatile Scotsman Black, the German physician Mayer, and the great American adventurer Count Rumford, who afterwards lived in Europe and, among other activities, became Minister of War for Bavaria. There was also the English brewer Joule who, in his spare time, performed some most important experiments con- cerning the conservation of energy.
If we regard the whole universe as a closed system, we can proudly announce with the physicists of the nineteenth century that the energy of the universe is invariant, that no part of it can ever be created or destroyed. Our two concepts of substance are, then, matter and energy. Both obey conservation laws: An isolated system cannot change either in mass or in total energy. Matter has weight but energy is weightless. We have therefore two different concepts and twoconservation laws. Are these ideas still to be taken seriously? Or has this apparently well-founded picture been changed in the light of newer developments? It has! Further changes in the two concepts are connected with the theory of relativity.
This wrong idea led to wrong theories about the universe etc.
On the other hand in chapter THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER he starts by accepting the inductive reasoning of the well-established laws of his "old science" as:
THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
Is it possible to explain the phenomena of heat in terms of the motions of particles interacting through simple forces? A closed vessel contains a certain mass of gas air, for example at a certain temperature. By heating we raise the temperature, and thus increase the energy. But how is this heat connected with motion? The possibility of such a connection is suggested both by our tentatively accepted philosophical point of view and by the way in which heat is generated by motion. Heat must be mechanical energy if every problem is a mechanical one.
However his photon theory was incomplete. Under the influence of Maxwell’s invalid fields Einstein believed that photon is a massless particle having only energy hν. Einstein begins by paying tribute to Maxwell’s theory of light; it “has proved itself excellently suited for the description of purely optical phenomena and will probably never be replaced by another theory”. Also Einstein wrote: “ Since Maxwell’s time physical reality has been thought of as represented by continuous fields, and not capable of any mechanical interpretation. This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton”. That is, Einstein believed that Maxwell’s fields without having ordinary mass remain completely valid and most appropriate for dealing with the problems of optics, whereas his quantum theory of light should be used to understand the interaction between light and individual atoms.
Note that much more later in his "The evolution of physics" (1938) Einstein revived Newton's particles of light, Of course after 33 years he recognized that Maxwell's fields could not be related with photons, though in his paper of 1905 he emphasized that Maxwell's theory of light will probably never be replaced by another theory. In chapter THE QUANTA OF LIGHT one can see his paragraph:
Newton's theory was dead and, until our own century, its revival was not taken seriously. To keep the principal idea of Newton's theory, we must assume that homogeneous light is composed of energy-grains and replace the old light corpuscles by light quanta, which we shall call photons, small portions of energy, travelling through empty space with the velocity of light. The revival of Newton's theory in this new form leads to the quantum theory of light.
However in 1950 Einstein wrote:
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. ... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. (Albert Einstein, Metaphysics of Relativity, 1950)
Moreover in 1954 Einstein reviving the ether of Descartes (1644) wrote:
Descartes argued somewhat on these lines: space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space. It appears to me, therefore, that the formation of the concept of the material object must precede our concepts of time and space. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Under such fallacious ideas our model of dipolic photons is based on the well-established laws of the Ampere and the Coulomb laws as:
Fm = (2kI/R)il leading to the simple case of the magnetic force Fm between +q and –q separated by R, when the dipole moves at u and the R is perpendicular to u . So one gets Fm = kq2u2/R2. On the other hand the electric force Fe of the Coulomb law is Fe = Kq2/R2
Since Weber in 1856 found that K/k = c2 we get Fe/Fm = c2/u2 .
It means that the photon operates when Fe = Fm which occurs at the velocity u = c.
On September 26 Einstein published his paper "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (special relativity). Though Einstein suggested the quanta of light, in fact, he did not reject Maxwell's wrong fields. According to his invalid special relativity Einstein believed that if a photon had a mass it could not achieve the speed of light. In fact, according to our discovery of PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION the particles cannot move as fast as the speed of light because photons give off their mass to particles during their absorption. Nevertheless he thought that he found a new relativity by violating the two conservation laws of mass and energy. Also he replaced the ether by using as a reference point a randomly moving observer in vacuum, though he used exactly the Lorentz math based on ether. Note that later under the influence of Mach's speculations in his general relativity Einstein re-introduced the ether.
Einstein was very knowledgeable about the history of conservation of mass started with the pre-Socratic philosophers. In a great work the Roman poet Lucretius recorded the Nature-Philosophy of Leucippus , Democritus, and Epicurus and he reiterated what may be considered as one of the earliest hints of a profound general principle of science: “Things cannot be born from nothing back to nothing”. Moreover Lavoisier after his famous experiments wrote in 1879: “ We must lay it down as an incontestable axiom that in all the operations of art and nature nothing is created; an equal quantity of matter exists both before and after the experiment”. However for preparing his wrong relativity he violated this fundamental conservation law.
Also for the history of the principle of relativity Einstein was deeply knowledgeable that once the Ptolemaic idea that the earth is the fixed center of the universe is abandoned the question arises whether there is anything fixed-whether, the concept of absolute rest has any meaning. Galileo in 1632 after many experiments showed that there is no such thing as absolute rest. Generalizing his observations Galileo concluded: “Any two observers moving at constant speed and direction with respect to one another will obtain the same results for all mechanical experiments. Furthermore according to the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws (1687) all the laws of physics are the same for a laboratory at “rest” (on the earth) as for a laboratory on train moving with uniform velocity along a straight line (inertial frame) with respect to the earth.
Since a photon has not only energy hν but also a mass m, we discovered that it is responsible for the increase of mass of the electron in the Kaufmann experiment (1901-1903) according to which the mass Mo of an electron increases to M at a velocity u as
M/Mo = c/(c2-u2)0.5 = γ where γ > 1.
Here the differentiation of this equation led to our discovery of the Photon -Matter Interaction
hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c2
That is, according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass during the absorption of a photon the energy hν and the mass m turn into the energy ΔW and mass ΔΜ of electron respectively under a length contraction and a time dilation. So the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment cannot be related with Galileo's relativity of uniform motions, because the electron accelerates under the absorption of a non mechamical energy.
Historically, in 1881 J. J. Thomson recognized that when a charged particle absorbs energy its mass increases. Under the influence of Maxwell’s fields he thought that the fields behave as if they add an “electromagnetic mass” to the mechanical mass of the charged bodies. Meanwhile in 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of particles of light. Also Poincare in 1900 recognized that electromagnetic energy behaves like a fictitious fluid with mass density of m = E/c2 , which led to my idea of the dipolic photon having opposite charges and a mass m = hν/c2 . In 1902 Max Abraham, who was supporter of the electromagnetic mass, under the conservation law of mass quickly offered an explanation of the Kaufmann results, and a similar theory was developed also by Bucherer in 1904.
Meanwhile for the solution of the same problem Lorentz (1904) did not follow the useful idea of electromagnetic mass but under the influence of Maxwell’s ether he tried to explain the increase of mass by rejecting the accurate results of a famous experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in 1887, who showed that the fallacious ether of Maxwell’s fields cannot exist. Like the air which affects the sound on an open railway flatcar physicists believed that the motion of the ether with respect to the earth will affect the velocity c of light. In that experiment the total times T and To of the light path required for round trips along the length L of the interferometer (parallel to the motion of earth) and an equal length Lo in perpendicular direction to L are given by
T = 2Lc/(c2-u2) and To = 2L/(c2-u2)0.5
Since L = Lo they found T/To = c/(c2-u2)0.5 = γ =1
Although Michelson found that T = To which means that u = 0 (the ether cannot exist), Lorentz by using the same mathematics formulated his so-called Lorentz transformation by assuming that the factor γ is greater than one. That is γ > 1 which leads to the time dilation under a strange hypothesis of contraction of the length L. Also Lorentz by violating the conservation law of mass proposed that the value of mass is increased like the time dilation by the same factor γ, though the hypothetical length contraction leads not to the increase of mass but to the increase of mass density.
Especially Lorentz suggested that in the experiment of 1887 the null result ( u = 0 ) is an apparent value due to the interferometer which during the motion through the hypothetical ether contracts and such a strange phenomenon leads to the increase of mass and the time. Of course under such strange ideas Lorentz violated not only the Galilean principle of relativity but also the conservation law of mass. Note that when Michelson and Einstein met briefly in 1931, Michelson remarked that he regretted that his experiment might have been responsible for giving birth to such a "monster" - referring to the theory of special relativity. But Einstein later recalled "In my development, Michelson's result has not had a considerable if I knew of it at all when I wrote my first paper on the subject" . In fact, the Lorentz math, as used by Einstein, was based on the Michelson Mathematics of 1887.
Under this confusion Lorentz developed the so-called “Lorentz ether theory” according to which the electrons operate not by action at a distance but by the false electromagnetic field of the ether which appears as a mediator between the electrons and changes in this field can propagate not faster than the speed of light.
In fact according to the well-established natural laws the force acts at a distance. For example the field F/q = KQ/R2 in the Coulomb law was defined as a force per unit charge, which cannot be a carrier of the same force. In other words Lorentz went back to accept the Cartesian philosophical ideas (1644) according to which the space is filled with pieces of the immovable ether that can interact when they touch. Such strange ideas led later to wrong theories of force carriers which did much to retard the progress of atomic and nuclear physics.
It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein following not the fruitful ideas of electromagnetic mass but the Lorentz math under the strange assumptions of length contraction and time dilation in a fallacious ether violated the conservation law of mass, though in his paper of the mass-energy equivalence he found that photons carry inertia.
Under his quanta of light and for avoiding the Lorentz ether of the Huygens "Old Science", Einstein starts by using Maxwell’s false fields without his ether, though he recognized that the fields without the ether also cannot be consistent with his photons. Under this confusing situation he used the Lorentz math of the fallacious ether and used only the fields of Maxwell moving through the Faraday vacuum because he believed that the properties of vacuum transmit the Maxwellian waves. So he violated the conservation laws of mass and energy, because he did not use the electromagnetic mass of J.J. Thomson.
Historically despite the fallacious ether, Huygens of the "Old Science" found experimentally that the energy in a system remains the same after a perfectly elastic collision as before the collision. After our analysis of this conservation law we found that at the point of collision (point of reference) the rest mass of the system is equal to the mass of the moving sphere because of the elastic collision. That is, it invalidates the special relativity not only by rejecting Einstein’s the randomly moving observers but also all Einstein’s ideas about the changing of mass, space, and time. Also this observation invalidates Mach's speculations that all motions are relative to the fallacious “fixed stars". Under this speculation Einstein re-introduced the ether in his general relativity.
Moreover our analysis of inelastic collisions, in which Newton observed that there is a dissipation of energy, we showed that the mass of the moving sphere after the collision has a mass defect because at the rest point a part of the energy is transformed into a thermal energy. This fact was known to Einstein who accepted the generalized law of conservation of energy, since Joule confirmed with experiments that heat is a form of energy. Whereas according to Einstein’s special relativity the mass of the moving sphere should be greater. In other words this simple inelastic collision invalidates dramatically both special and general relativity. Under this condition of philosophical concepts one observes that Einstein’s methods for revealing the physical phenomena differ fundamentally from Galileo and Newton, who discovered the laws of nature based on the detailed observations and experiments.
Einstein thought that Maxwell’s electric field is correct but leads to an asymmetry in the Galilean principle of relativity, which should be solved by using the Lorentz transformations based on ether. Here one observes many contradictions, since the same equations based on a fallacious ether cannot be used in the Galilean principle of relativity. Nevertheless Einstein postulated a “Principle of relativity” according to which he thought that Maxwell’s wrong fields and optics are valid for all frames of reference, though in the explanation of the photoelectric effect they lead to complications. He also wrote that the equations of mechanics hold good in all frames. This is an obvious contradiction because the Lorentz length contraction and time dilation violate the equations of mechanics. Another obvious error is observed also in his relativistic simultaneity which violates Newton's third law. In fact, Newton's instantaneous simultaneity of his third law is the same in all inertial frames in accordance with the Galilean principle of relativity. I proved that this fact leads to the length contraction and time dilation when the photon mass is absorbed by particles. That is, Einstein introduced his invalid relativity by violating the Galilean relativity not only in the induction law but also in Newton's third law. Under this condition his theory of relativity cannot be related with the principle of relativity.
According to my model of dipolic photons one sees that the charges of the photon in terms of electric and magnetic intensities Ey and Bzinteract with the electron charge (-e) as
Ey (-e)dy = dW and Bz(-e)dy = Fmdt = dP
Since Ey/Bz = c
one gets dW/dP = c or dW/dmc = c or dW/dm = c2
which leads to our photon matter interaction. Note that a free photon works with electric and magnetic forces at the same time in any inertial frame, because the simultaneity of Newton’s third law is not relative to an observer but is conserved in all frames. However during the interaction of the photon with a stationary electron the magnetic force Fm appears after the electric force which produces the velocity dy/dt. Such a velocity which is able to damage the photon’s operation must approach to zero under a length contraction dy and a time dilation dt, because both electric and magnetic forces should work at the same time.
The fourth paper “Does the inertia of an object depend upon its energy-content?” describes his mass- energy equivalence (E = mc2, November 21), which is an incomplete formula retarding the progress of physics, because it violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In the Bohr model (1913) it is well-known that the energy of the photon is due not to the mass of the orbiting electron but to the charge-charge interaction of the system proton - electron. Also we discovered that the nuclear binding energy is due not to the mass defect but to the electromagnetic forces of short range.
Whereas Einstein for his incomplete formula E = mc2 in a later statement summarized: “very small amount of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa”.(See Albert Einstein -Wikiquote). It is well-known that those years experiments of atomic and nuclear physics showed that the orbiting electrons in atoms under a binding energy are characterized by a mass defect for the generation of the photon mass, which invalidates dramatically the special relativity. Note that the special relativity incorrectly predicted an increase of mass of the electron motion relative to the nucleus.
Einstein did not like Newton’s statement that the center of our world is immovable. However according to Newton’s laws it cannot be identified. In other words we cannot determine a universal absolute space. Indeed I analyzed carefully that under an eternal cosmos developed by the pre-Socratic philosophers we cannot determine the position of the big bang because of its primordial motion in an eternal cosmos. However for cosmologists who believe that our observable universe is similar to an eternal cosmos this idea leads to complications.
But since Newton did not determine the reference point of a two-body collision, Einstein in his special relativity related incorrectly the uniform motion with respect to a randomly moving observer. In other words only the relative motion between two observers contributes to the changes of mass space and time. For example according to Einstein’s invalid ideas an observer moving with an electron in an accelerator can measure an increase of mass of the stationary bodies in the laboratory. Of course such a strange theory did not satisfied him. So in 1907 he began to develope his general relativity by re-introducing the ether.
Unfortunately Einstein was influenced by the speculations of the philosopher Mach who speculated that all motions are relative to the fallacious “fixed stars” . So Einstein following the same ideas of two observers was able for developing his wrong general relativity according to which the motion of the earth about the sun is equivalent to a reference frame in which the sun moves with respect to the earth. But under such speculations Einstein related all motions with respect to an immovable ether which was rejected by him in his special relativity. Under this condition his discussions illustrate that physics can be formulated in a way that frames of reference in uniformly accelerated motion relative to each other was also be considered equivalent. In drifting spaceship we have no sensation of motion. But as soon as the rockets are turned on we feel the effect of their thrust. Einstein was therefore able to generelize the relativity to all motions.
Meanwhile, in 1907 Minkowski, who was Einstein’s most important mathematics teacher, realized that Einstein’s relativity could be best understood in a four-dimensional spacetime in which space and time are not separated. Of course such idea was incorrect, because we discovered that the lenght contraction and time dilation occur only in the case of the absorption of photons by particles under the quantum dynamics. Einstein himself at first viewed Minkowski’s treatment as a mere mathematical trick before eventually realized (1912) that a geometrical view of Minkowski’s spacetime is useful in order to complete his own later work in general relativity.
However Mach in the edition of his “Science of Mechanics” introduced a lengthy footnote opposing Minkowski’s use of four-dimensional geometry. Though Newton’s gravity with action at a distance cannot involve any time (instantaneous simultaneity of action at a distance) Einstein tried to construct a theory of gravity based not on forces but on a strange curvature of Minkowski’s spacetime.
In the same year (1907) Einstein started with the development of his theory of general relativity. Since Newton's gravity does not contain any time, Einstein linked the acceleration mα = F with gravitation, because α contains space and time (du/dt). But his application for the doctorate was rejected by the University of Bern as his doctorate paper was not sufficient. It is of interest to note that the acceleration α is caused not only by gravity but also by any kind of force. For this case Newton's second law is so powerful, because it can be applied not only to gravity but also to the electric, magnetic, contact forces etc. For example in the Bohr model (1913), the centripetal force (electric force) causing acceleration leads to the inertial force (centrifugal force). Under this condition Einstein later noticed:
But the idea that there exist two structures of space independent of each other, the metric-gravitational and the electromagnetic, was intolerable to the theoretical spirit. We are prompted to the belief that both sorts of field must correspond to a unified structure of space. (Einstein, 1954)
So Einstein's the so-called "principle of equivalence" which states that it is impossible to distinguish between acceleration and gravitation, is incomplete, because it involves only the gravity. Nevertheless he believed that he discovered a new principle. In fact, he repeated incorrectly Newton's inertia deduced from Newton's laws. It is well-known that F/α = a constant quantity m called inertial mass. Thus, it violates dramatically the special relativity because the inertia is always a constant quantity during the acceleration, no matter what is the value of the acceleration. Whereas the special relativity predicts incorrectly that the acceleration changes the inertial mass m. This fact was recognized later by Einstein, who noticed:
Now for the principle of the conservation of mass. Mass is defined by the resistance that a body opposes to its acceleration (inert mass). It is also measured by the weight of the body (gravity mass). That these two radically different definitions lead to the same value for the mass of a body is in itself an astonishing fact. ... According to the principle - namely, that masses remain unchanged under any physical or chemical changes - the mass appeared to be the essential (because unvarying) quality of matter. Physicists accepted this principle up to a few decades ago. But it proved inadequate in the face of the special theory of relativity. It was therefore merged with the energy principle. ... We might say that the principle of the conservation of energy, having preciously swallowed up that of the conservation of heat, now proceeded to swallow that of the conservation of mass - and holds the field alone. (Albert Einstein, 1946)
In 1907 Einstein also noticed the phenomenon of gravitational time dilation, because he believed that it is based on his "principle of equivalence". In fact, this phenomenon invalidates the so-called "principle of equivalence" according to which the inertial mass is always constant.
Historically, Newton in his first law showed that the force is the "cause" of change of velocity. However in Newton's own formulation of the second law he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the rate of change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt no matter what is changing. This is a simple generalization arising naturally from observations on collisions in which a sudden blow produces a finite change of momentum in a short period of time. But for continuously acting forces such as gravity it was far more convenient to define force differently, i.e., to use the rate of change of velocity, because in the absence of any absorption of photons the inertial mass remains always constant. It is this version of the second law, F = mα, formulated by Euler in 1750.
In the case of the moving photon in parallel direction to gravity we used not the Euler formula "principle of equivalence" but Newton's original formula. So we discovered that when the photon velocity c is parallel to gravity the application of Newton's second law leads to the changing of the photon inertial mass, because in this special case the constant quantity (inertia) is not the mass but the velocity c. It occurs under a length contraction and the time dilation.
Especially when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force Fg we discovered that under the application of Newton’s second law the dipolic photon increases its mass m because it cannot accelerate along the direction of c . So its energy is written as
Fgds = hdν = [d(mc)/dt]ds = dmc2
It happens under a length contraction and a time dilation, because any produced acceleration by the force must approach to zero. Note that a free photon works at c since at that speed it works with equal electric and magnetic forces, while at a greater speed of light the magnetic force will be greater than the electric one. Einstein by using not the force but the doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics derived the same equation, while the relativistic Doppler effect leads to complications. In other words the gravitational frequency shift is derived simply by reviving the well-established natural laws.
By 1909 all these assumed "new" ideas had brought him so much attention in the scientific world that he was appointed professor Extra Ordinary at the University of Zurich and a year later he was called to the chair of Theoretical Physics at the German University in Prague. In 1912 he returned to Zurich as professor of Theoretical Physics at the Polytechnic school from which he had graduated and began to develop his general relativity. In 1913 he was offered as a professor at the University of Berlin. Among Einstein's colleagues during his stay in Berlin (1914-1933) were many of Europe's leading physicists- Max Planck, Max von Laue, Gustav Hertz, and Schrodinger. In 1933 when Hitler came to power Einstein accepted an offer to join the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton of U.S.A. and this became his home until the death in 1955.
In 1911 Einstein thought that an accelerated box is indistinguishable from a box sitting in a gravitational field and under this phenomenon he believed that he predicted the bending of light near the sun. Note that Newton using his particles of light having mass predicted the bending of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Indeed, when a photon of mass m moves along a perpendicular direction to gravity its mass behaves like the mass of a material object. Though it moves at c it has a constant inertial mass. So the gravitational force produces an acceleration in perpendicular direction to c, under a constant inertial mass. Note that according to the invalid special relativity the photon is a massless particle. In this case one uses the Euler Formula, that is, the " principle of equivalence" and gets F = m(du/dt). In other words using Einstein's the "principle of equivalence" one invalidates his second postulation of his special relativity, because the photon under the gravity accelerates.
Also Einstein proposed that according to his invalid special relativity an observer on a rotating disc would find a different value of the constant π that the one predicted by Euclidean geometry.
Einstein also believed incorrectly that he generalized the principle of relativity by making it to apply to all motion. A detailed analysis will show that Einstein's falling lift is not consistent with the Galilean relativity. In Galileo's relativity a ship starts with acceleration because the contact force (wind) is greater than the friction force. This case is equal to Einstein's accelerated spaceship. Note that Einstein in his accelerated spaceship introduced a wrong field equal to a fallacious gravitational field like the wrong fields of Maxwell, while in Galileo's ship both forces cannot be transmitted to the observer on the ship. In this case the difference of forces produces a simple acceleration which leads to the inertial force. When the two forces give zero net force, the acceleration is zero. Thus the observer on the ship moving with constant velocity feels the same gravity as that of the stationary observer pointing always along the vertical direction. However in Einstein's falling lift during the acceleration the observer inside the lift does not feel any net force, like an observer in deep space far from any significant sourse of gravity, because here the gravity is equal to the inertial force due to acceleration which occurs with respect to a stationary observer on the earth. However the stationary observer on the earth feels always the gravity of earth. That is, in such an acceleration with respect to the earth the two observers will obtain different results. In case in which the falling lift occurs in a water of the sea during the falling the gravity will be equal to the friction force which cannot be transmitted to the observer. So the observer moving with constant velocity with respect to the earth, and in the absence of an inertial force, he will feel the same gravity as that of the stationary observer. Of course this last situation is similar to the observer of Galileo's moving ship.
In 1912 Einstein visited the mathematician M. Grossmann who introduced him to Riemannian geometry. For a while Einstein thought that there were problems with it, but he later returned to it and, by late 1915 had published his general relativity in the form in which it is used today. This theory rejects the real force acting at a distance of the well-established Newton's law and tries to explain gravity as distortion of the structure of Minkowski's four-dimensional spacetime by matter, affecting the uniform motion of other matter. This situation is the result of confusing speculations between Minkowski and Mach.
Einstein influenced by the philosophical speculations of Mach and the mathematical tricks of Minkowski believed that the curved trajectory of light, when photons move near the sun, explains the curvature of Minkowski's spacetime. Under this confusion he wrote: "Matter tells space how to bend and space tells matter how to move". This fact of strange properties of vacuum and time in the well-established laws of force is described simply as: Mass-mass interaction produces acceleration or charge-charge interaction produces the same acceleration. So according to Newton's I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES in all kinds of force, the space and time cannot be introduced for explaining the fundamental action at a distance. Note that Minkowski under the false length contraction and time dilation during the motion of an object as proposed by Lorentz, introduced his mathematical trick of four-dimensional spacetime, because he believed that space and time are changed during the motion of an object. In fact, the length contraction and time dilation occur when a photon is absorbed under my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION.
Moreover, since photons have mass under the applications of Newton’s second law the photon accelerates like Galileo’s a projectile. According to our dipolic photons the gravity produces an acceleration when the velocity c is perpendicular to gravity like the projectile of Galileo. Note that Galileo discovered that the curved trajectory of a projectile is the result of two separate motions occurred along straight lines of the Euclidean geometry. They are combined simultaneously in the simple effect of a superposition of the two individual vector velocities. Einstein in his general relativity recognized that under this situation the speed of light is not constant contradicting his postulation of special relativity. Therefore Max Abraham stated that Einstein had given special relativity a “coup de grace”.
In November,1915, Einstein completed his paper of general relativity which did much to retard the progress of physics, because he re-introduced the ether under the speculations of Mach, who stated that all motions are relative with respect to the fallacious “fixed stars” in an Aristotelian ether or in a reference frame attached to the "fixed stars". Thus Einstein’s efforts to produce a relativistic gravity started not from the gravitational properties of matter confirmed by the Cavendish experiment (1798) but by the inertial ones by speculating that an acceleration related to the fallacious “fixed stars” or to the wrong ether should be responsible for the gravity. On the other hand he believed that the gravity is due to both wrong gravitational waves and to a strange curvature of Maxwell's ether or the curvature of the space time in accordance with the Faraday strange properties of space and time around magnets. That is, he confuses the fallacious fixed stars with an immovable ether and also with a strange curvature with four dimensions of Minkowski's spacetime. However much more later in his "The evolution of physics" (page 306) he notes that electrons and photons move not in a four- dimensional spacetime but in a three-dimensional continuum.
For one elementary particle, electron or photon, we have probability waves in a three-dimensional con- tinuum, characterizing the statistical behaviour of the system if the experiments are often repeated
Newton had explained the orbiting of planets around the sun by saying that the sun's gravity caused the planets to deviate from the straight paths. We can see it in the derivation of the centripetal force. They would otherwise pursued. But Einstein said that the planets pursued the shortest possible four dimensional paths in a space-time warped by the sun's gravity. (Actually he did not need to add this shortest-path assumption. As was later discovered it is a consequence of his gravitational equations. These shortest paths yielded orbits for the planets that were almost the same as those obtained by Newton under the Euclidean geometry. Nevertheless, physicists consider that general relativity was correct because of its mathematical beauty. Of course the problem was more complicated when he introduced Minkowski's four dimensions of non-Euclidean geometry. It is well-known that the Coulomb law of force is similar to gravity. Under this condition the enormous success of the time-independent three-dimensional Schrodinger equations interpret accurately the one -electron atoms.
Nevertheless Einstein in "The evolution of physics (page 306) suggested arbitrarily a six-dimensional continuum as follows:
Indeed, it is not very difficult to guess how to describe in quantum physics a system composed of two interacting particles. We have to descend one floor, to return for a moment to classical physics. The position of two material points in space, at any moment, is cha- racterized by six numbers, three for each of the points. All possible positions of the two material points form a six-dimensional continuum and not a three-dimensional one as in the case of one point. If we now again ascend one floor, to quantum physics, we shall have prob- ability waves in a six-dimensional continuum and not in a three-dimensional continuum as in the case of one particle. Similarly, for three, four, and more particles the probability waves will be functions in a continuum of nine, twelve, and more dimensions.
In 1920 Einstein confusing the Faraday vacuum with Maxwell's ether notes:
Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it. (Albert Einstein, Leiden Lecture, 1920)
Moreover in 1924 he wrote that matter influences the "structure of ether" and then the matter is influenced by the ether. In other words he confused fields with gravitational waves and a curvature of vacuum with the "structure of ether". See these paragraphs of his paper CONCERNING THE AETHER (1924).
According to special relativity too, the aether was absolute, since its influence on inertia and the propagation of light was thought as being itself independent of physical influence...... Thus the aether of general relativity differs from those of classical mechanics and special relativity in that it is not ‘absolute’ but determined, in its locally variable characteristics, by ponderable matter. .
Newton’s belief in an absolute space of rotating systems was plausible; at any rate it was not damaging to the structure of his system. However he did not give any analysis for the local space of uniform velocities. In the absence of such a clarification I emphasize that according to the conservation laws of mass, energy, and angular momentum the axis of a gyroscope on a moving train points always to the same direction. Also the mass and the velocity of rotation, which is relative to the spin axis , remain constant no matter what is the uniform velocity of the train. Whereas Mach speculated that the rotation is a relative motion with respect to the fallacious “fixed stars” of Aristotle’s philosophy. Such speculations influenced Einstein deeply to develop his theory of general relativity. Einstein was forced to do that because the uniform motions of special relativity with respect to a randomly moving observer led to many complications.
In 1916, after Einstein published his work, Lorentz wrote a letter to Einstein in which he speculated that within his new theory of general relativity the ether was re-introduced. In his response Einstein wrote that one can actually speak about a "new ether" but one may not speak of motion in relative to that ether. Of course it is a contradiction because the ether should not have many various properties for two different theories. In the early 1920s in a lecture Einstein sought to reconcile the theory of relativity with the concept of the ether . Also in his paper named “Concerning the Aether” Einstein under his confusions between a curved vacuum and the ether explained that the “ether of general relativity” is still “absolute” because matter is influenced by the ether just as matter influences the structure of ether. On the other hand in his book “The Evolution of Physics” (1938) he emphasized that the ether is replaced by the Faraday strange vacuum which has the properties for transmitting Maxwell’s fields.
In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the two-body collision in which the reference point is the point of collision, there was an issue in Einstein’s uniform motions with respect to an observer. If all motion is relative how we can measure the inertia of a body? Einstein influenced by Mach’s speculations believed that both uniform motions and accelerations in straight lines and in rotating systems are relative to a reference frame attached to the fixed stars or to an immovable ether. For example he noticed that both the sun and the earth are equivalent systems moving with respect to the ether or to a frame of reference attached to the fixed stars. Whereas Newton in his local absolute space of rotating systems recognized the existence of an advantage reference system: what is commonly called “Newton’s bucket argument”. It is well-known that the inertial force Fi or centrifugal force is the reaction of the centripetal force no matter what is the kind of force.
Nevertheless Einstein's case of a falling lift led me to discover the "principle of independence". This situation is very important for understanding the behavior of the inertial forces caused by gravity.After a detailed analysis of accelerations due to gravity I discovered a new relativity of accelerations which is similar to the relativity of uniform motions, when the stationary observer is not on the earth or in deep space far from any significant source of gravity, but inside the earth (at the center of the earth) where the gravity and the inertial force in the system of the earth is zero.
Also I discovered that in our universe there is an infinite number of such places in which an observer feels weightless. For example an observer in the center of our earth cannot feel any net gravitational force due to the mass of earth. In this case the reference point (stationary position) is the center of the earth but occurs in very artificial conditions. Moreover in the system sun-earth the observer will feel the same zero net force (weightless) because the gravity between the observer and the sun and the opposite inertial force (centrifugal) force of the orbiting earth (or orbiting observer) give zero net force. In this second case the reference point is the center of the sun. In fact, using Newton’s local absolute space we discovered that in the reference frame of the earth there are three cases in which an observer feels weightless. For an observer in the center of the earth we see that Fg = 0 and Fi = 0. That is, the net force is zero.
It is of interest to note that according to our discovery of the "principle of independence" an astronaut orbiting the earth performing an experiment with two bodies to test the law of gravity, will see that the presence of the mass of earth cannot affect his experiment, because the gracity of earth and the inertial force of acceleration give zero net force. Also the mass of the sun cannot affect his experiment because in the system earth-sun in which the reference point is the the center of the sun the inertia of the system earth-astronaut is equal to the gravity produced by the sun. In other words there are many positions in our universe in which the objects behave like an object which is far from any significant source of gravity.
Historically, Newton after the discovery of calculus succeeded to calculate the gravitational force outside a spherical shell of mass distribution. In the same way by using the algebra of vector force acting at a distance one can calculate the zero gravity inside a spherical shell of mass distribution. Note that according to the well-established law of Coulomb the electric force on a unit charge is zero at all points inside the spherical conductor. This similar situation of spherical charge distributions cannot tell us what kind of curvature due to mass or charge distribution could give zero force. Since this situation leads to complications we emphasize that Einstein tried to replace the well- established laws by introducing various hypotheses, because he believed that "science is not the collection of laws but of hypotheses".
Einstein speculated Like Mach that the rotation is relative with respect to the fallacious “fixed stars” which should be connected with an immovable ether or a vacuum with a curvature affected by the fixed stars or by the far distribution of matter. So like the Faraday ideas of induction he believed that for the gravity is not responsible the real force of the well-established laws but the so called curvature of spacetime. On the other hand he believed also that the gravity contains fields similar to Maxwell’s false fields which can carry the forces at the speed of light. Also he suggested that there are gravitational waves like Maxwell’s wrong electromagnetic waves. Since the two hypotheses differ fundamentally, one sees an obvious contradiction between the curvature of spacetime and the gravitational waves because both hypotheses should be wrong or only one at least should be correct under the fundamental axiom that nature works only in one way. We see that all the fruits of Newton’s great work which led to the well-established laws would be lost by suggesting a number of different hypotheses like the Ptolemaic system before the discovery of laws.
Einstein also believed that his theory of general relativity solved the well-known problem of Mercury’s precession. Einstein's explanation depends on his invalid idea that energy is associated with mass and that even in empty space, for example the energy represented in the sun's gravity may be affected by and in turn act on other objects that exert gravitational forces. In fact, it is due to the Newtonian Sun-tide. We emphasize that according to Newton’s great work no theory can replace the well-established laws of nature.
In 1917 Einstein in a published paper tried to apply his theory of general relativity to the universe as a whole, and since he believed in a static universe added arbitrarily a cosmological constant (antigravity), whose role was to offset the effect of gravity in such a way that our universe would remain static. But after Hubble announced his conclusions (1931) Einstein wrote that his cosmological constant was “the greatest blander of my life”. Moreover recent measurements by W.M.A.P. have confirmed that the universe will expand for ever. In our paper OUR EARLY UNIVERSE we showed that our universe seems to be like a surface of a soap bubble. We live on the skin of this bubble and according to natural laws inside of this bubble the attractive gravity is zero, like the zero gravity in a hole at the center of the earth.
In the 1920s the Bohr-Einstein debates were a series of public dispute. For the Bohr model (1913) Einstein was at first dubious, but later changed his mind and admitted it. For the Max Born probability in Quantum Mechanics in 1926 in a letter to Born Einstein wrote: “I at any rate am convinced that He [God] does not throw dice”. Note that Einstein was deeply religious man, but he did not feel the need for ritual, nor did he subscribe to the more pictorial aspects of formal religious belief. He believed firmly that there is a God, though not necessarily a God interested in the individual. Once, irked by an irrational objection, he said "God is deep, but he is not malicious".
In the 1930s Einstein was dissatisfied with the quantum entanglement experiment, and since he believed that it violates his invalid ideas of relativity called it “Spooky action at a distance”.
It is of interest to note that despite the enormous success of the time-independent Schrodinger equations of three-dimensional Euclidean geometry, which explained accurately all data of the one-electron atoms, the general relativity based on false ether and wrong fields prescribes a spacetime continuum of four-dimensional non-Euclidean geometry, which leads to complications. It is well-known that the laws of gravity and of Coulomb do not contain the time, because of the instantaneous action at a distance. Moreover the positions of two charges Q and q form a straight line of the Euclidean geometry with forces which are directed along the distance between the charges (straight line). In the magnetic interactions of Q and q moving with velocities u and υ respectively we revealed that the velocity u and the distance r between Q and q form a plain xy of the Euclidean geometry and the direction of the magnetic force on the moving q is always related to the xy plain.
In general two photons emitted by a radioactive material form a triangle of the Euclidean geometry from the material to the infinite distances. The enormous success of Greek astronomy is due to the laws of the Euclidean geometry. However Einstein for supporting the non- Euclidean geometry used the special case of the surface of a sphere in which the laws of Euclidean geometry are good approximations only in small areas. In his book “The evolution in physics (1938) Einstein emphasizes also that all space is governed by the non-Euclidean geometry, because he believed that it was rejected by his special relativity. According to the Euclidean geometry for a given angle θ the arc S of an outer concentric circle of radius R and the arc s of an inner concentric circle of radius r are given by the simple relation S/R = s/r =θ. However Einstein emphasized that in a rotating disk this relation is not valid because the S of the outer concentric circle contracts more than s in accordance with his invalid relativity.
Under such a fallacious way for understanding physics Einstein in vain tried to find a mathematical method to unify his gravity of general relativity and the false fields of Faraday and Maxwell. In 1929 he announced a unified field theory but the mathematics could not be compared with experiments. Before his death (1955) the search for a true unified field theory continued to fill Einstein’s days of invalid ideas. Of course the fallacious ether from age 16 until his death was the dominant concept that tormented Einstein. Towards the end of his life Einstein in 1954 wrote to his friend Besso expressing his frustration, because he failed to realize his dream of a unified field theory for matter, and that his continuous field may not represent the reality of matter.
All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. … I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics.
Finally, before his death, in 1955, in a letter of condolence to the Besso family Einstein wrote his now famous quote: "Now Besso has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That means nothing. People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion".