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Why is the Sun's Corona so much hotter than the Sun's surface? The coronal heating problem in solar physics relates to the question of why the temperature of the Sun's corona is millions of kelvin higher than that of the surface. The high temperatures require energy to be carried from the solar interior to the corona by nonthermal processes, because the second law of thermodynamics prevents heat from flowing directly from the solar photosphere, or surface, at about 5800 K, to the much hotter corona at about 1 to 3 MK (parts of the corona can even reach 10 MK).
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I believe that vibrating atoms in the Sun's core emit Gravitational Waves. The absorption of this energy corresponds to a Forbidden Transition therefore these waves pass through the…

I am not Victor V. Demjanov.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1002.3880
Experiments performed in order to reveal fundamental differences between the diffraction and interference of waves and electrons
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Victor V. Demjanov
(Submitted on 20 Feb 2010)
Diffraction patterns of electrons are believed to resemble those of electromagnetic waves (EMW). I performed a series of experiments invoked to show that the periodicity of peaks in the diffraction diagram of electrons is concerned with the periodicity of the arrangement of scattering centers in the diffraction grating in combination with the supposed character of the spatial structure of the electron as a system of regularly spaced concentric shells of elasticity.I started from the experiment on the diffraction …

The pressure that an electron orbital can resist without becoming degenerate = 1/radius^6.
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(Except for nondegenerate matter which is 64 times greater)
Therefore the maximum radius that a solid astronomical object can become before its core collapses depends only on its atomic mass.
This is why all planets from 1 to 52 jupiter masses are approximately the same size
Atoms of degenerate matter are four times smaller than non degenerate matter. Double degenerate atoms are eight times smaller. Triple degenerate are 16 times smaller.
Image shows 1 diatomic hydrogen molecule next to 2 monatomic helium atoms
A hydrogen molecule and a helium atom both have a charge of 2 and are therefore the same size.
Outer electron shell is triple degenerate.
Inner ele…

Complex number = a + bi
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i^2 = 1
a and b are the coefficients.
Quaternion = hypercomplex = complex number with complex coefficients = (a+bi)1 + (c+di)j
j^2 = 1
ij = ji = k
Biquaternion = quaternion with complex coefficients.
https://www2.gwu.edu/~spwm/BiquaternionsSPWM.ppt
Quaternions find uses in both theoretical and applied mathematics, in particular for calculations involving threedimensional rotations such as in threedimensional computer graphics, computer vision and crystallographic texture analysis. In practical applications, they can be used alongside other methods, such as Euler angles and rotation matrices, or as an alternative to them, depending on the application.
Quaternions have had a revival since the late 20th century, primarily…

A magma (or groupoid) is a set with a single closed binary operation (addition).



 a + b = c
 a + b = c


A semigroup is a magma where the addition is associative.



 a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
 a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c


A monoid is a semigroup with an additive identity element.



 a + 0 = a
 a + 0 = a


A group is a monoid with additive inverse elements.



 a + (a) = 0
 a + (a) = 0


An abelian group is a group where the addition is commutative.



 a + b = b + a
 a + b = b + a


A pseudoring is an abelian group that has a second closed, associative, binary operation (multiplication) as well.


 a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c
 a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

 And these two operations satisfy a distribution law.

 a(b + c) = ab + ac
 a(b + c) = ab + ac


A ring is a pseudoring that has a multiplicative identity (see below)



 a * 1 = a
 a * 1 = a


A commutative ring is a ring where multiplication commutes,



 a * b = b * a
 a * b = b * a


A field is a commutative ring…
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Magnetic field in 4 spatial dimensions
In ordinary 3D space the magnetic field forms a ring around a moving charge which is everywhere at right angles to the electric field and the direction of motion of the charge.
But if the charge were moving in the direction of a fourth spatial Dimension then the magnetic field would form a 3D shell completely enclosing the charge. The magnetic field would no longer be a vector field but rather would be a bivector field.
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In three dimensions light consists of oscillating electric and magnetic (vector) fields which are at a right angle to each other and to the direction of propagation of the light. One dimension is the electric field. Another dimension is the magnetic field. The third dimension is the d… 
Now what would have to be true for an electron to fit inside a Neutron? Lets see.
Angular momentum of electron = (planks constant)/(2pi) Relativistic angular momentum = γmvr Relativistic centripetal force = γmv^2/r
Gamma*(electron mass)c(10^14 m)=(planks constant)/(2pi) solve for gamma Wolfram says gamma = 38.6
38.6*(electron mass)*(velocity of light)^2/(10^14 m) Wolfram says force = 316 newtons
The force between 2 electrons at that distance is ( Coulomb's constant )*(electron charge)^2/(10^14 m)^2 Wolfram says 2.3 newtons
According to those equations the force holding the electron inside the neutron is 137 times stronger than electrostatic repulsion would be at that distance Which means the strong force is 10 billion times stronger tha…
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I never realized how useful proper velocity is. Not only is it useful at both low speed and high speeds but it equals momentum per unit mass at any speed
By grouping γ with v in the expression for relativistic momentum p, proper velocity also extends the Newtonian form of momentum as mass times velocity to high speeds without a need for relativistic mass.
proper acceleration is the rate of change of proper velocity with respect to coordinate time. proper acceleration α and coordinate acceleration a are related through the Lorentz factor γ by α=γ^3a.
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There is no strong force. When two protons or proton shells move toward each other each one puffs up so that the total electrostatic energy of the overall system decreases. The system therefore naturally moves toward the state of lowest energy and the 2 proton shells merge.
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The size of each proton shell is quantum mechanically coupled to the distance between them. There is no classical analogue.
In reality there's a few neutrons involved too. But the general idea is the same.
The maximum range of the strong force is about 10 fm.
Two protons at rest 10 fm from each other will accelerate away from each other until each has a kinetic energy of about 72,000 electron volts.
https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=%28Coulomb%27s+constant*%281+electro…

Short grb = 0.3 sec
Intermediate grb = 1.5 sec
long grb = 30 sec
Diameter of neutron = 2 fm
Diameter of tetraneutron = 4 fm
The density of a neutron star = (1.5*10^14 g/cm^3)
 This is the density of close packed tetraneutrons
 This is the density of close packed tetraneutrons
A 1.4 solar mass neutron_star is 11.5 km in radius.
Gravitational binding energy of a neutron star is 0.151 solar mass which is one tenth of its rest Mass
 (3 * G * (1.4 solar mass)^2/(5 * 11.5 km))/c^2 = 0.151 solar
masses
 Surface gravity = 1.43270128 * 10^11 g's
 Core pressure = 1.212 * 10^28 bar
 (3 * G * (1.4 solar mass)^2/(5 * 11.5 km))/c^2 = 0.151 solar
masses
When the core of the 1.4 solar mass neutron star finally collapses the energy released by the strong force (not gravity) in the collapse is converted to passive gravitational_mass but with the sign now reversed. I think this corresponds …
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Earth differentiated into gabbro (upper mantle) and peridotite (lower mantle). Earths moon Theia differentiated even further into granodiorite and dunite (olivine).
3 billion years ago Theia's decaying orbit reached the Roche limit and over the next 1 billion years slowly deposited all of its mass onto a ring of mountains circling the earth's equator.
First the ice on its surface was deposited. This formed Earths ocean. Since Earth had no continents at that time the surface of the Earth was completely flooded.
Then the granodiorite was deposited. The granodiorite metamorphosed into the various rocks of the continental crust.
Then 2.4 billion years ago the dunite was deposited. This created the banded iron formations. The dunite sank to the bo…
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There is geological and paleontological evidence that Earth rotated faster and that the Moon was closer to Earth in the remote past. Tidal rhythmites are alternating layers of sand and silt laid down offshore from estuaries having great tidal flows. Daily, monthly and seasonal cycles can be found in the deposits. This geological record indicates that 620 million years ago there were 400±7 solar days/year.
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The current rate of lunar recession which has been measured very accurately by mirror's placed on the moon indicates that there should have been 426 days in a year 620 million years ago. The usual explanation for the discrepancy is that the moon was receding more slowly in the past. This makes no sense. If anything the moon should have b…

Image below shows four equipotentials of a rapidly spinning 50 Jupiter mass protostar. The north pole is up. The south pole is down. The equator reaches orbital velocity.
Planets form 4 at a time from material spun off the equator. A pair of large planets and a pair of small planets.
At first all 4 of the planets are in the same orbit but eventually they end up in orbits that look like this:
Over time the orbits are circularized.
All masses are in units of 10^22 kg
Protosun 9,500,000
 Jupiter 189,800
 Satyrn 56,830
 Neptune 10,240
 Ouranos 8,681
 Jupiter 189,800
Protosun
 Earth 597
 Venus 487
 Mars 64
 Mercury 33
 Earth 597
Jupiter has four large moons too :
 Ganymede 15
 Callisto 10
 Io 9
 Europa 5
 Ganymede 15
Ouranos also has four large moons
 Titania 0.35
 Oberon 0.3
 Ariel 0.135
 Umbriel 0.117
 Titania 0.35
Only two issues:
1) O…
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Mineral assemblages of common igneous rocks and their relation to the interior structure of the Earth
Type Structure Density Bowen's series Type
Water
Ocean
1.0 1.0 0 0.0606 6371 0 3.688 1.0
Pelagic Amorphous
Silica
(SiO2)
Diatomite
Chert
Calcareous
2.7/2.95
2.85
Calcite/Aragonite
Dolomite
Limestone
Dolostone
Karst
Marble
Tremolite
Diopside Calc–silicate Hornfel Skarn 2.3  2.7  0.000023 0.0023 6371 0 0.1
Evaporite
Gypsum
(CaSO4)
Evaporite
Halite
(NaCl)
Organic
Organic matter
Peat
(1)Oil
(1)Natural gas
(1)Lignite
(1)Bituminous coal
(2)Anthracite
(4)Graphite
Clastic
Quartz
Sand
Sandstone
Quartz arenite
Quartzite
Argillaceous Tectosilicates 2.65 Quartz Qua…
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Vertical axis = n + l
Color indicates crystal structure
Volume in angstroms^{3} (Atomic packing factor * Atomic mass / Density):
AtomicNumber=89Ac10070227fcc}} AtomicNumber=90Th11724232.04fcc}} AtomicNumber=91Pa15370231.04tetr}} AtomicNumber=92U19050238.03orth}} AtomicNumber=93Np20450237orth}} AtomicNumber=94Pu19816244mon}} AtomicNumber=95Am12000243dhcpcolor=red}} AtomicNumber=96Cm13510247dhcp}} AtomicNumber=97Bk14780247dhcp}} AtomicNumber=98Cf15100251dhcp}} AtomicNumber=99Es8840252fcc}} AtomicNumber=100Fm0257fcc}} AtomicNumber=101Md0258fcc}} AtomicNumber=102No0259hcp}}
AtomicNumber=103Lr0266hcp}} AtomicNumber=104Rf0267hcp}} AtomicNumber=105Db0268bcc}} AtomicNumber=106Sg0…
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Test
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I am once again going to try to reboot this wiki and adopt it. Anyone with me? Dinoenthusiastguy (talk) 16:24, May 30, 2016 (UTC)
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Hi everyone! I don't know if anyone is reading this, but if you are, please reply. This wiki seems to be almost completely abandoned aside from Darkenkaul and myself. If anyone wants to help the wiki please do so, especially if you are an admin. If no admins can be found, I'll try to adopt it. In the mean time, there is lots of work to be done. Help wanted! Dinoenthusiastguy (talk) 04:30, November 24, 2014 (UTC)
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I always had trouble with relative velocity problems in two dimensions. Can anyone help me understand the "Man Moving in Rain" relative velocity concept. Also I sometimes get into trouble when I face questions that contain the thing about a man tring to cross a river and all that river flow making him drift right(or left) and then calculating the velocity with respect to ground etc. etc.
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